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National Park Service History Electronic Library & Archive

The NPS History Electronic Library & Archive is a portal to electronic publications covering the history of the National Park Service (NPS) and the cultural and natural history of the national parks, monuments, and historic sites of the U.S. National Park System. The information contained in this Website is historical in scope and is not meant as an aid for travel planning; please refer to the official NATIONAL PARK SERVICE Website for current/additional information. While we are not affiliated with the National Park Service, we gratefully acknowledge the contributions by park employees and advocates, which has enabled us to create this free digital repository.


NPS logo Robert M. Utley
October 31, 1929 — June 7, 2022
Robert M. Utley

Robert M. Utley

Robert M. Utley

Former NPS Chief Historian (1964-80) and author, Robert M. Utley, died on June 7, 2022, in Scottsdale, Arizona, following complications from a simple surgery. Bob was born in Arkansas on October 31, 1929, reared in Pennsylvania and Indiana, and obtained degrees at Purdue (1951) and Indiana (1952) Universities. What launched Bob's career was his fascination with George Armstrong Custer.

During his college years, Bob spent six summers (1947-52) as a "historical aide" for the National Park Service at Custer Battlefield National Monument. After his service in the Army, his National Park Service career began as Regional Historian of the Southwest Region in Santa Fe (1957-1964), subsequently becoming NPS Chief Historian (1964-1980). He played a major role in the development of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 and then in its implementation.

Bob took early retirement at age fifty in 1980 to focus his energies on writing books -- 23 in all, including Billy the Kid: A Short and Violent Life, Sitting Bull: The Life and Times of an American Patriot, Lone Star Justice: The First Century of the Texas Rangers, and Geronimo. Besides writing, he served on the board of directors of Eastern National Park and Monument Association (1977-1997), twice as chairman, and was a founder and past president of the Western History Association. Bob is survived by his wife Melody Webb and two sons.

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Custer and Me
A Historian's Memoir

(Robert M. Utley, 2021)

New eLibrary Additions

Featured Publication

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The Civilian Conservation Corps in Glacier National Park
(David R. Butler, 2022)

Profiles of America's Most Threatened Civil War Battlefields (1998)

Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Covered Bridges (Christopher H. Marston and Thomas A. Vitanza, eds., 2019)

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2021 (Jennifer Hintz Guse and Allison Dubenezic, October 2021)

Kiva, Cross, and Crown: The Pecos Indians and New Mexico, 1540-1840 (John L. Kessell, 1979)

Fure's Cabin, Historic Structure Report, Bay of Islands, Naknek Lake Katmai National Park & Preserve (Joaqlin Estus, Harvey M. Shields and David E. Snow, 1984)

The Most Striking of Objects: The Totem Poles of Sitka National Historical Park (Andrew Patrick, 2002)

Yukon Frontiers: Historic Resource Study of the Proposed Yukon-Charley National River Occasional Paper No. 8 (Melody Webb Grauman, November 1977)

Visual Communication Guidelines: Kennecott Mines National Historic Landmark, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska (September 14, 2016)

Cultural Landscape Report: Chalmette Unit, Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve 95% Draft (WLA Studio, May 2022)

African American Experience Before Emancipation — Historic Context Narrative, National Park Service-National Capital Area (John Bedell and Andrew Wilkins, June 2022)

Special History Study: Women's Rights National Historical Park, Seneca Falls, New York (Sandra S. Weber, September 1985)

Silent Sentinels: The Japanese Guns of the Kiska WWII Battlefield (Dirk HR Spennemann, 2014)

Of a Temporary Character: A Historic Structure Report of First Fort, Second Fort, and the Arsenal and Historical Base Map, Fort Union National Monument, Fort Union, New Mexico Southwest Cultural Resources Center Professional Papers No. 43 (Laura Soullieré Harrison and James E. Ivey, 1993)

The 1939-1940 Excavation Project at Quarai Pueblo and Mission Building, Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, New Mexico Southwest Cultural Resources Center Professional Papers No. 29 (Wesley R. Hurt, 1990)

A Pioneer Log Cabin in Bonita Canyon: The History of the Stafford Cabin, Faraway Ranch Historic District, Chiricahua National Monument, Arizona — Historic Resource Study (Dewey Livingston, 1994)

Historic Structure Report/Historical and Archeological Data Sections: A History of the Buildings and Structures at Faraway Ranch: Chiricahua National Monument, Arizona (Louis Torres and Mark Baumier, July 1984)

Documento Fundacional, San Juan National Historic Site, Puerto Rico (Septiembre 2013)

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments in the National Park Service: An integrated review for infrastructure, natural resources, and cultural resources NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/CCRP/NRR-2022/2404 (Katie McDowell Peek, Blair R. Tormey, Holli L. Thompson, Alan C. Ellsworth and Cat Hawkins Hoffman, eds., June 2022)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Buck Island Reef National Monument NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/BUIS/NRR-2022/2380 (Danielle E. Ogurcak, Maria C. Donoso, Alain Duran, Rosmin S. Ennis, Daniel Gann, Alexandra G. Gulick, Paulo Olivas, Tyler B. Smith, Ryan Stoa, Jessica Vargas, Anna Wachnika and Elizabeth Whitman, May 2022)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/SAPU/NRR-2022/2393 (Kathy Allen, Andy J. Nadeau and Andy Robertson, May 2022)

Natural Resource Conditions at Capitol Reef National Park: Findings & Management Considerations for Selected Resources NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NCPN/NRR-2022/2406 (Kim Struthers, Lisa Baril and Mark Brunson, June 2022)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/TIMU/NRR-2022/2394 (Kathy Allen, Andy J. Nadeau and Andy Robertson, June 2022)

Natural Resource Conditions at Valles Caldera National Preserve: Findings & Management Considerations for Selected Resources NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/VALL/NRR-2022/2409 (Jeff Albright, Kim Struthers, Lisa Baril and Mark Brunson, June 2022)

Geologic Resources Inventory Report, Buffalo National River NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/GRD/NRR-2022/2413 (Trista Thornberry-Ehrlich, June 2022)

Geologic Resources Inventory Report, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/GRD/NRR-2022/2399 (Katie KellerLynn, June 2022)

Restoration Feasibility Report: Santa Rosa Life Saving Station and Coast Guard Garage, Gulf Islands National Seashore (Joseph K. Oppermann-Architect, April 2022, Ch. 1 & 2 Preview Draft)

Geology of the Lassen Volcanic National Park, California (Howel Williams, extract from University of California Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences, Vol. 21 No. 8, 1932)

Vertebrate Natural History of a Section of Northern California Through the Lassen Peak Region University of California Publications in Zoology Vol. 35 (Joseph Grinnell, Joseph Dixon and Jean M. Linsdale, October 1930)

Vegetation Inventory of Jimmy Carter National Historical Park: Boyhood Farm Site Draft (Joesphine Duffy, April 22, 2022)

National Park Service Geologic Type Section Inventory, Southern Plains Inventory & Monitoring Network NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/SOPN/NRR-2022/2411 (Tim C. Henderson, Vincent L. Santucci, Tim Connors and Justin S. Tweet, June 2022)

Predicting Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply: Mount Rainier National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/MORA/NRR-2022/2400 (Rachel M. Fricke and Rebecca A. Lofgren, June 2022)

Fossil Floras of Yellowstone National Park: Part I. Coniferous Woods of Lamar River Flora (Charles B. Read, extract from Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. 416, December 1930)

When Harry Got Taken: The Early Days of the Yellowstone Camps (Mark Barringer, extract from Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 69 No. 4, Fall 1997; ©Wyoming State Historical Society)

A Brief History of Black Americans in the Yellowstone National Park area, 1872-1907 (Lee Whittlesey, extract from Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 69 No. 4, Fall 1997; ©Wyoming State Historical Society)

The Development of Yellowstone: Myths, Realities, and Uneasy Projects (Paul Schullery, extract from Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 69 No. 4, Fall 1997; ©Wyoming State Historical Society)

Traveling to the Park: Diaries of the Yellowstone Experience (Lovina Johnson and Margaret Gehrke, extract from Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 69 No. 4, Fall 1997; ©Wyoming State Historical Society)

Appropriate River Recreation Use Studies

A Research Plan to Study Appropriate River Recreation Use on the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, New River Gorge National River and Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management Report(David W. Lime, Dorothy H. Anderson, Richard C. Knopf, John H. Schomaker and Richard Schreyer, July 1985)

Methods for Estimating Recreational Use: A Bibliography Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management Report(Jeffrey L. Marion, December 1984)

Identification and Preliminary Analysis of River Recreation Impacts on Fish and Wildlife: The New River Gorge National River Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management Report(Michael Patterson, Joseph W. Roggenbuck and James D. Fraser, September 1988)

Identification and Preliminary Analysis of River Recreation Impacts on Fish and Wildlife: Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management Report(Michael Patterson, Joseph W. Roggenbuck and James D. Fraser, November 1988)

New River Gorge National River: A Narrative History of Its Designation as Part of the National Park System Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management ReportMAR-19 (Steven Simpson and Leo McAvoy, January 1987)

An Analysis of Community Response to Federal Presence in the Upper Delaware River Valley: A Report to Managers Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management ReportMAR-24 (Matthew S. Carroll, Ben W. Twight and Marsha McCabe, June 1987)

Ecological Impacts on Recreation Sites at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River, Pennsylvania-New York Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management ReportMAR-28 (Jeffrey L. Marion and David N. Cole, September 1987)

Management of River Resources at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area and Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River — A Survey of Visitor Opinion Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management ReportMAR-33 (Richard C. Knopf, Alan R. Graefe and Richard Schreyer, August 1988)

Analysis of Legislative and Legal Foundations for Establishing Carrying Capacity: Summary Report for the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management ReportMAR-37 (Steve Simpson and Leo McAvoy, October 1987)

Exploring the Potential Partnership Role of River Outfitters in Managing Public Rivers Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management ReportMAR-41 (David W. Lime, Joseph W. Roggenbuck, William C. Norman and Joyce L. Berger, June 15, 1989)

Analysis of Legislative and Legal Foundations for Establishing Carrying Capacity: Summary Report for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area and the Middle Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management ReportMAR-42 (Steve Simpson and Leo McAvoy, September 1989)

Summary of Research Objectives, Accomplishments, and Future Needs for the Study of Appropriate River Recreation Use on the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, New River Gorge National River and Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Mid-Atlantic Region Research/Resources Management Report(David W. Lime, January 18, 1989)

Featured Publication

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The Civilian Conservation Corps in Utah: Remembering Nine Years of Achievement, 1933-1942
(Kenneth W. Baldridge, 2019)

Scientific Explorations in Southern Utah (Herbert E. Gregory, extract from American Journal of Science, Vol. 243, October 1945, reprint May 1950)

Biotic Relationships of Zion Canyon, Utah, with Special Reference to Succession: A Survey of the Geological, Botanical, and Zoological Interrelationships Within a Part of Zion National Park, Utah (Angus M. Woodbury, extract from Ecological Monographs, 3, April 1933)

Geologic History of Scotts Bluff National Monument University of Nebraska-Lincoln Educational Circular No. 3 (Roger K. Pabian and James B. Swinehart II, February 1979)

Brochure: A Burning Threat, Sequoia-Kings Canyon National Parks (2022)

Landbird Population Trends in Parks of the Sierra Nevada Network: 2011-2019 Synthesis NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/SIEN/NRR-2022/2402 (Chris Ray, Robert L. Wilkerson, Rodney B. Siegel, Mandy L. Holmgren and Sylvia A. Haultain, June 2022)

Aquatic Invasive Species Threatening the Crown of the Continent (Jennifer McBride, Date Unknown)

Invasive Plants of the Crown of the Continent (Jami Belt and Dawn LaFleur, 2011)

Proactive Decision Support Tools for National Park and Non-Traditional Agencies in Solving Traffic-Related Problems (©Antonio Fuentes, PhD Thesis, 2019)

Grant Kohrs Ranch Fence Report (Philip B. Davis and Lisa Rew, March 2011)

Campgrounds: Reference Material and Sources of Information Pertaining to Planning, Development, and Operation of Private Campgrounds (Data Unknown)

Nā Hulu Aloha — A Precious Remembering: Origin stories of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument Native Hawaiian Cultural Working Group Kiamanu Sub-committee (Hōkū Cody, Umi Kai, Miki'ala Pescaia and Jen Waipa, extract from Parks Stewardship Forum, Vol. 38 No. 2, 2022)

Management Plan, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (December 2008)

Chimney Rock on the Oregon Trail (Merrill J. Mattes, extract from Nebraska History, Vol. 36, 1955)

Recreational Resources of the Alaska Highway and Other Roads in Alaska (December 1944)

NPS Newsletter: Vol 7 No 11 - June 12, 1972Vol 9 No 2 - February 4, 1974

Arrowhead: The Newsletter of the Employees & Alumni Association of the National Park Service: Vol 9 No 2 - Spring 2002Vol 11 No 2 - Spring 2004Vol 11 No 4 - Fall 2004Vol 12 No 2 - Spring 2005Vol 12 No 3 - Summer 2005Vol 12 No 4 - Fall 2005

Summary of Annual Mountaineering Reports from Areas Administered by the National Park Service - 1996 (Wayne R. Howe, April 15, 1967)

Summary of Annual Mountaineering Reports from Areas Administered by the National Park Service 1967 (Karl T. Gilbert, March 18, 1968)

Summary of Annual Mountaineering Reports from Areas Administered by the National Park Service 1998 (1969)

Sun Protection without Ecological Harm: Promoting Reef-Friendly Visitor Behavior in National Parks (2020)

Visitor Sun Protection in the National Parks: A Report to the National Park Service (K.L. Akerlof, February 15, 2022)

Giardia in Denali National Park: A preliminary study (William L. Saltonstall, 1988)

Giardia in Wildland Waters: Information for National Park Managers Water Resources Report No. 86-1 (Juliette Wilson and Sam Kunkle, eds., January 1986)

State of the Art in Road Salt Deicing 1982 Water Resources Field Support Laboratory Report No. 82-3 (September 1982)

Campground Management (September 18, 1964)

Campsite Impact Assessment System: Application and Development (Jeffrey L. Marion, Date Unknown)

National Park Service Computerized Campsite Reservation System (American Express Reservations, Inc., April 4, 1973)

Measuring National Park Attractiveness (William R. Catton, Jr., 1964)

National Park Service Picnicking Policy (Date Unknown)

Rock Climbing Management (July 23, 1991)

Rules and Regulations (July 21, 1964)

Water Use Policy in National Recreation Areas That Are Principally Water Impoundments (October 27, 1964)

The Importance of Effective Listening (Date Unknown)

Canyon Classroom: The training of a National Park Ranger (James H. Winchester, extract from Rainbow, Date Unknown)

Student Introduction: Horace M. Albright Training Center (Date Unknown)

The U.S. National Park System: An Economic Asset at Risk (Jared Hardner and Bruce McKenney, May 30, 2006)

Distinction Between National Parks and National Forests (K.O. Manghan, extract from Bulletin of New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University, Vol. VII, No. 1-a, May 1934)

The Status of Disability Access in the NPS: From Rhetoric to Reality (Participant Guide) (December 5, 2006)

Park Science (Vol. 36 No. 1, Summer 2022)

Alaska Park Science: Commemorating ANILCA at 40 (Vol. 21 No. 1, June 2022)

We all live and work on Indigenous lands

Commemorating ANILCA at 40: A Reflection on the Colossal Legislation and its Effects on Alaska’s Peoples, Resources, and Conservation (Joshua Ream, Shina duVall and Nicole Braem)

ANILCA as an International Model for Conservation Legislation (Egan Cornachione and Paula Pletnikoff)

The Power of a Few Words: How ANILCA Preserves the Human History of Alaska’s Public Lands (Chris Allan)

The Best Job in the World! The History of Wild and Scenic River Designations in Alaska (Pat Pourchot)

ANILCA, Navigability, and Sturgeon (Gavin DeMali)

ANILCA: A Perspective from Boots on the Ground (Andee Sears, Adrienne Lindholm and Peter Christian)

Alaska Native Rights Champion Katie John Lived What She Believed: Honesty, Trust, Love, and Forgiveness (Ahtna, Incorporated)

ANILCA and Subsistence: Perspectives from a former Federal Subsistence Board Chair (Mike Fleagle)

Subsistence Harvest Monitoring of Pacific Salmon on the Kuskokwim River (Danielle Lowrey and Katherine Russell)

The Harvest and Use of Wild Resources by Communities Within or Near Northern Alaska Parklands (Caroline Brown and Brooke McDavid)

Healing Voices: A Primer on American Indian and Alaska Native Boarding Schools in the U.S. (Volume 1) (2nd ed., National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition, June 2020)

Federal Indian Boarding School Initiative Investigative Report (Bureau of Indian Affairs, May 2022)

Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in Colorado and Wyoming (1993)

The Oregon Central Military Wagon Road: A History and Reconnaissance, Willamette National Forest Heritage Research Associates Report No. 6 (Stephen Dow Beckham, 1981)

Heceta House: A History and Architectural Survey Studies in Cultural Resource Management No. 3 (Stephanie Finucane, rev. February 6, 1980)

A Geologic Trip Along Snoqualmie, Swauk, and Stevens Pass Highways Washington Division of Mines and Geology Information Circular No. 38 (University of Washington Geology Department Staff, 1963)


Cowpens National Battlefield. (NPS photo)
National Historic Landmark Battlefields

National Historic Landmarks symbolize and commemorate the most important aspects of United States history. Landmarks are chosen for their national significance and integrity, i.e., the extent to which they retain their historic qualities. Visiting these places allows modern people to step back in time and experience the lives their predecessors led in ways not otherwise possible. Numerous battlefields allow us to contemplate events that shaped our nation.

Approximately 3% of all National Historic Landmarks are battlefields or forts associated with particular military campaigns. Some, like Fort de la Boulaye, built in Louisiana in 1700, even predates the United States. Fort de la Boulaye was built by the French when they occupied the Mississippi River Valley. Indian attacks forced its abandonment in 1707. Fort San Carlos de Barrancas in Pensacola, Florida, and Fort San Marcos de Apalache, near Tallahassee, were built by the Spanish to defend their empire against the United States. They fell to Andrew Jackson in 1814 and 1818, respectively, opening the way for acquisition of Florida.

Davidson and Nash Arches, Guilford Courthouse National Military Park. (NPS photo)

Currently, about 26% of all landmark battlefields are associated with the Revolutionary War. They include such well-known sites as Valley Forge and Brandywine in Pennsylvania, Monmouth and Morristown in New Jersey, and Fort Stanwix and Saratoga in New York. In the South, Revolutionary War landmark battlefields include Cowpens and Kings Mountain in South Carolina, Moores Creek and Guilford Courthouse in North Carolina, and Yorktown in Virginia. Non-battlefield landmarks associated with that war include Scotchtown, Virginia, the home of Patrick Henry, and the USS Constellation, the first U.S. ship to engage and defeat an enemy vessel.

Perry's Victory & International Peace Memorial. (NPS photo)

The War of 1812 is represented by a handful of landmarks, including the naval battles on Plattsburgh Bay on Lake Champlain, New York, and Perry's Victory on Lake Erie in Ohio. Other landmark battlefields associated with the War of 1812 include Fort McHenry in Baltimore Harbor, Maryland, and the site of the 1815 Battle of New Orleans in Louisiana.

Hopefully, the new Congressionally mandated Revolutionary War and War of 1812 Historic Preservation Study will result in increased protection for endangered battlefields associated with those conflicts. The landmarks at Brandywine and Monmouth are both currently threatened by private development.

Sunrise at Resaca de la Palma Battlefield, Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park. (NPS photo)

The Mexican War and the struggle for Texan independence from Mexico are commemorated by the Alamo, San Jacinto Battlefield, Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, and Fort Brown, all in Texas. Palo Alto is a new National Park which Just last year received funding to purchase a third of the battlefield to provide access to visitors. The core of the battlefield remains to be acquired. The park will also interpret the battles at Resaca de la Palma and Fort Brown which followed the battle of Palo Alto in Gen. Zachary Taylor's campaign to push Mexican Gen. Mariano Arista back across the Rio Grande.

Washita Battlefield and Horseshoe Hills, Washita Battlefield National Historic Site. (Washita NPS Archives photo)

Approximately 11% of landmark battlefields are associated with 19th-century Indian Wars campaigns, including Wounded Knee in South Dakota and the Chief Joseph Battleground of Bear's Paw in Montana. The Washita battlefield in Oklahoma, a Landmark since 1965, was added to the National Park System in November 1996.

Fort Donelson National Battlefield. (NPS photo)

About 26% of all landmark battlefields are associated with the Civil War. Of the 384 sites identified by the Civil War Sites Advisory Commission as the war's principal battlefields, only sixteen have been designated as National Historic Landmarks.

Aerial view of the USS Arizona Memorial. (Diana Quinlan/US Navy photo)

A number of battlefields associated with World War II are National Historic Landmarks. They include Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, sites on the Pacific Islands of Midway, Wake, Kwajalein, Palau, Saipan, and Tinian, and others on the Roi-Namur Islands and in Micronesia. The site of the only World War II battle fought on the North American continent, the Attu battlefield on Attu Island, Alaska, is also included. The island was captured by the Japanese and reoccupied by the Americans in 1943.

      Protecting Battlefield Landmarks

Battlefields that are National Historic Landmarks encounter the same threats and problems as those that are not landmarks. The open space is often seen as prime for development, or a good location for highways and utilities. Isolated landmarks that are difficult to reach and patrol and, alternatively, urban landmarks that are located close to centers of population may suffer from vandalism. Many suffer from natural forces, such as flooding and erosion. While Congress has approved funds for landmark protection, to date it has not appropriated monies for this purpose.

The National Park Service's National Historic Landmarks Assistance Initiative (NHLAI) monitors landmarks and reports on their condition to Congress. Over the past ten years, NHLAI has found that approximately 6% of all landmarks are seriously threatened or damaged every year, with a further 9% potentially damaged or threatened.

According to the Civil War Sites Advisory Commission report, 50% of the principal Civil War battlefields not already lost face high or moderate threats. Eight battlefields identified by the Commission as the most significant and most threatened are National Historic Landmarks. They are: Bentonville, North Carolina; Cedar Creek, Virginia; Glorieta Pass, New Mexico; Perryville and Mill Springs, Kentucky; and Port Hudson, Louisiana; Corinth, Mississippi; and Monocacy, Maryland.

Union & Confederate Monuments in Perryville. (Joseph E. Brent photos)

Four of these sites have been listed in the NHLAI's annual report on endangered and damaged National Historic Landmarks. The Perryville battlefield, site of the October 8, 1862, battle that stopped the Confederate offensive for control of Kentucky, was first listed in 1989 as threatened by new construction. Seven years later, after local, state, and federal organizations helped protect the battlefield, Perryville was removed from the NHLAI's list of threatened landmarks.

Port Hudson Battlefield. (Committee for the Preservation of the Port Hudson Battlefield photo)

The battlefield at Port Hudson, Louisiana, the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River to fall to Union forces, has been listed by the NHLAI since 1982 as severely endangered. The Louisiana Department of Commerce and Industry declared the highway through the landmark an enterprise zone, thereby encouraging new development. Construction of housing and new utility lines disturbed trenches and earthworks as well as archeological remains. This year the threat has lessened as a result of concerted action by the Louisiana Office of Parks, the National Park Service (NPS), and The Conservation Fund. The state and NPS completed an American Battlefield Protection Program (ABPP) study that recommended identifying archeological resources within the landmark boundary, acquiring land or easement donations for significant tracts, and passing an effective state or local ordinance controlling future construction where archeological resources are present. The Conservation Fund purchased key portions of the battlefield.

Glorieta Pass. (Richard Greenwood photo)

Glorieta Pass, New Mexico, was the site of a decisive battle of the Civil War. Here, Union forces destroyed a Confederate supply train, compelling a Confederate brigade to withdraw from New Mexico and abandon plans to seize the rich Colorado mines and a large part of the Southwest. Glorieta Pass has been on the NHLAPs list of endangered landmarks since 1982, first because the only remaining building of significance from the period was abandoned and deteriorating, and later because of development on private lands within the boundary. At one time, the state proposed widening the highway that runs through the landmark. While the state has withdrawn its proposal, private landowners continue to build on the battlefield. So far, the NPS has been able to purchase 180 acres of the 345 acres that comprise the landmark and add it to Pecos National Historical Park. The NHLAI recommends the completion and enforcement of a land protection plan and the acquisition of easements on remaining portions of the landmark.

Union Battery F, Battle of Corinth. (James C. Harris photo)

Corinth, Mississippi, is the remaining landmark Civil War battlefield identified as having "major" importance by the Civil War Sites Advisory Commission and listed in the NHLAPs report to Congress. Listed as an endangered landmark since 1992, Corinth is threatened by development and inappropriate uses. Logging operations destroyed a section of earthworks with picket rifle pits, and a newly discovered section of earthworks was recently sold for development. To help protect the landmark's resources, the ABPP has funded research, archeological surveys, and plans for interpretation and protection, and the NPS's Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems Branch has conducted extensive surveys of the earthworks.

      NHL Assistance Initiative

This program monitors the condition of National Historic Landmarks and provides technical assistance to owners. These activities are carried out through site visits and condition assessment reports, technical publications, workshops and conferences, and posting information to the Internet. A coordinator in the Preservation Initiatives Branch of Heritage Preservation Services, NPS, works with a team of specialists located in NPS field offices to carry out the NHLAI.

           Text from CRM, Vol. 20 No. 5, 1997
Susan Escherich

Cowpens National Battlefield. (Blewett/NPS photo)

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Please Note: is an independent effort; we are not an official partner of the National Park Service (NPS), though a huge debt of gratitude is extended to all NPS employees (current and former) and other park supporters who have graciously contributed their personal collections, thus enabling us to present these rather scarce documents for free public use. Due diligence has been employed in scanning these documents in an attempt to ensure the accuracy of the materials presented, however, we make no representations or warranties of any kind about these digital documents. While most of the content contained herein is in the public domain, the Website also contains copyrighted works (permission to host this content is on file); please respect the reserved rights of these copyright-holders. Use of this Website is done so at your own risk; we are not responsible for any loss or damage arising from information or links contained within this site. Enjoy!

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